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Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis)

    Young green leaves & leaf bud of the tea tree on plantation in Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka

    Family: Theaceae

    Grow zone: 4-9

    Camellia sinensis, the tea plant, is versatile and can be used to produce various types of tea. The main types of tea derived from Camellia sinensis include:

    1. Green Tea: Green tea is made from unoxidized leaves and is known for its fresh, grassy flavor. The leaves are typically steamed or pan-fired to halt oxidation and preserve the natural green color. Green tea is rich in antioxidants and is often enjoyed for its potential health benefits.
    2. Black Tea: Black tea undergoes a process of withering, rolling, oxidation, and drying. The oxidation process gives black tea its characteristic robust flavor, darker color, and stronger caffeine content compared to other teas. Black tea can range from malty and bold to floral and fruity, depending on the specific variety.
    3. Oolong Tea: Oolong tea is partially oxidized, falling between green and black tea in terms of oxidation levels. The leaves are withered, rolled, and allowed to oxidize to varying degrees before being fired to halt oxidation. Oolong teas can have a wide range of flavors and aromas, from light and floral to rich and toasty.
    4. White Tea: White tea is made from young tea leaves and buds that undergo minimal processing. The leaves are typically withered and dried, allowing for minimal oxidation. White tea has a delicate flavor profile and is known for its subtle sweetness and light, floral notes.
    5. Pu-erh Tea: Pu-erh tea is a fermented tea that can be either raw (sheng) or cooked (shou). It undergoes a microbial fermentation process that imparts unique flavors and can result in a rich, earthy, and sometimes aged taste. Pu-erh tea is often compressed into cakes or bricks for aging and maturation.

    In addition to these main types, variations and specialty teas can be produced from Camellia sinensis, such as flavored teas, scented teas (e.g., jasmine tea), and blended teas that combine different tea types or include herbal ingredients.

    It’s worth noting that herbal infusions or tisanes, such as chamomile, peppermint, or rooibos, are not derived from the Camellia sinensis plant. They are made from various herbs, flowers, or other botanicals and do not contain caffeine.

    Each type of tea offers distinct flavors, aromas, and potential health benefits. Exploring the diverse range of teas derived from Camellia sinensis can be a delightful and educational journey for tea enthusiasts.

    For this book’s purposes, let’s focus on Green Tea for it’s medicinal use:

    About Green Tea as Medicine

    Green tea, derived from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant, has been consumed for centuries and is renowned for its potential health benefits. It contains bioactive compounds, including polyphenols and catechins, which contribute to its medicinal properties. Here’s an overview of green tea as medicine:

    1. Antioxidant Activity: Green tea is rich in antioxidants, particularly catechins such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). These antioxidants help protect cells from oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Green tea’s high antioxidant content is believed to contribute to its various health benefits.
    2. Heart Health: Green tea has been associated with cardiovascular benefits. It may help reduce the risk of heart disease by lowering LDL cholesterol levels and inhibiting the oxidation of LDL cholesterol. Regular consumption of green tea has also been linked to improved blood vessel function and reduced blood pressure.
    3. Weight Management: Green tea is often included in weight loss and weight management regimens. It is believed to increase metabolism and fat oxidation, helping to enhance weight loss. Green tea may also help regulate blood sugar levels and reduce cravings, contributing to better weight management.
    4. Mental Alertness and Brain Health: Green tea contains caffeine, which can improve alertness, focus, and cognitive performance. Additionally, it contains the amino acid L-theanine, which promotes relaxation and mental clarity. The combination of caffeine and L-theanine in green tea can have a synergistic effect on brain health.
    5. Cancer Prevention: Some studies suggest that the polyphenols in green tea may help protect against certain types of cancer. The antioxidants in green tea can help neutralize free radicals and inhibit the growth of cancer cells. However, more research is needed to understand the specific mechanisms and potential benefits in different types of cancer.
    6. Anti-Inflammatory Effects: Green tea has anti-inflammatory properties attributed to its polyphenolic compounds. Regular consumption of green tea may help reduce inflammation in the body and alleviate symptoms associated with inflammatory conditions.
    7. Digestive Health: Green tea has been used traditionally to support digestion and gut health. It may help improve digestion, relieve gastrointestinal discomfort, and promote healthy gut bacteria.
    8. Oral Health: Green tea’s antimicrobial properties can contribute to oral health by inhibiting the growth of bacteria that cause dental plaque and cavities. It may also help reduce bad breath.

    Green tea is typically consumed as a beverage by steeping the leaves in hot water. It is important to choose high-quality, organic green tea to ensure maximum health benefits and avoid excessive pesticide exposure. It’s generally recommended to consume moderate amounts of green tea (2-3 cups per day) as part of a balanced diet.

    Medicinal Effects:

    Anti-inflammatory: Alleviate inflammation throughout the body
    Anti-rheumatic (Arthritis - Relief): Alleviate symptoms associated with arthritis, such as joint pain and stiffness. Available in various forms, including capsules, extracts, and topical creams, which are used for joint pain relief.
    Antioxidant: A substance such as vitamin C or E that removes potentially damaging oxidizing agents in a living organism.
    Arthritis - Reduce Inflammation/Swelling (Anti-rheumatic): Alleviate symptoms associated with arthritis, such as joint pain and stiffness. Available in various forms, including capsules, extracts, and topical creams, which are used for joint pain relief.
    Cancer - Reduce / Treat: anti-carcinogenic
    Cognitive Function and Memory:
    Digestive health - General: Supports digestive health by promoting healthy gut bacteria and reducing symptoms of digestive disorders. When taken in various forms, such as in teas or extracts, may help soothe gastrointestinal issues like indigestion, constipation, and diarrhea. For example: may help alleviate conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and improve overall gut function.
    Mental Health & Wellness (Cephalic):
    Oral Health:

    How to grow and harvest

    Growing and harvesting green tea (Camellia sinensis) requires specific conditions and care. Here are some general guidelines on how to grow and harvest green tea:

    1. Climate and Location: Green tea thrives in regions with a subtropical to temperate climate. It prefers a moderate amount of rainfall, well-distributed throughout the year. The ideal temperature range for green tea cultivation is around 50°F to 85°F (10°C to 29°C). However, specific cultivars may have different temperature preferences, so it’s advisable to choose varieties suitable for your climate.
    2. Soil Conditions: Green tea plants prefer well-draining, acidic soil with a pH level between 4.5 and 6.0. The soil should be rich in organic matter and have good moisture retention properties. If your soil is not naturally acidic, you can amend it with organic matter or use acidic fertilizers to create a suitable environment.
    3. Propagation: Green tea plants can be propagated from seeds or cuttings. However, starting from cuttings is more common as it ensures the characteristics of the parent plant. Obtain healthy cuttings from a reputable source. Prepare a potting mix with good drainage using a mixture of peat moss, perlite, and compost. Plant the cuttings in the potting mix, leaving a few leaves above the surface. Keep the soil moist and place the cuttings in a partially shaded area until they establish roots.
    4. Planting: When planting green tea in the ground, prepare the soil by loosening it and adding organic matter. Dig a hole that is slightly larger than the root ball of the plant. Place the plant in the hole, ensuring it is at the same depth it was in the container. Backfill the hole with soil, gently firming it around the base. Space the plants about 3 to 5 feet (0.9 to 1.5 meters) apart to allow for growth and airflow.
    5. Care and Maintenance: Green tea plants require consistent care to thrive. Provide regular watering, ensuring the soil remains moist but not waterlogged. Mulching around the base of the plants can help retain moisture and suppress weeds. Prune the plants to encourage bushier growth and to remove any damaged or diseased parts.
    6. Harvesting: Green tea leaves are typically harvested when they are young and tender. The exact timing of harvest depends on the specific variety and growing conditions. The first harvest is known as the “first flush” and is highly prized. Pick the top two to three leaves and the bud, using a sharp pair of scissors or shears. Leave a few leaves on the plant to allow for continued growth. Harvesting can be done throughout the growing season, typically every few weeks.
    7. Processing: After harvesting, green tea leaves need to be processed to prevent oxidation and preserve their green color. Traditionally, green tea is processed by steaming or pan-firing the leaves to stop oxidation. This step may require specialized equipment and techniques. It’s advisable to consult local resources or tea experts for guidance on processing the harvested leaves.

    How to use as medicine:

    Green tea has been consumed for centuries and is believed to offer various health benefits. To use green tea as medicine, you can incorporate it into your daily routine in the following ways:

    1. Drinking Green Tea: The most common method is to prepare and consume green tea as a beverage. Here’s a simple guide:
      • Boil water and let it cool for a couple of minutes (temperature around 160°F to 180°F or 70°C to 85°C is ideal).
      • Place green tea leaves (about 1 teaspoon per cup) in a teapot or infuser.
      • Pour the hot water over the leaves and let them steep for 1 to 3 minutes.
      • Strain the tea and enjoy it plain or with a bit of honey or lemon to taste.

      Aim to drink 2 to 3 cups of green tea per day to maximize its potential benefits. However, be mindful of your caffeine intake if you are sensitive to it or have any health concerns.

    2. Green Tea Extracts: Green tea extracts are concentrated forms of the active compounds found in green tea. They are available in liquid or capsule form. Follow the instructions on the product label or consult a healthcare professional for proper dosage and usage guidelines.
    3. Topical Applications: Green tea extracts can be added to skincare products or used topically for certain conditions. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of green tea may help soothe skin irritation, reduce redness, and provide protection against environmental damage. Look for skincare products that contain green tea extracts or make your own green tea-infused toners or face masks.
    4. Green Tea Supplements: Green tea supplements, available in capsule or tablet form, provide a concentrated dose of green tea’s beneficial compounds. These supplements can be found in health food stores or online. It’s important to follow the recommended dosage instructions and consult a healthcare professional before starting any new supplements.

    When using green tea as medicine, it’s essential to keep the following points in mind:

    • Quality Matters: Choose high-quality, organic green tea or green tea products to ensure they are free from pesticides or contaminants.
    • Moderation: While green tea offers potential health benefits, it’s important not to exceed moderate consumption. Excessive intake of green tea or supplements can have adverse effects due to the caffeine and other compounds present.
    • Individual Considerations: Green tea may interact with certain medications or medical conditions. If you have any pre-existing health conditions or are on medications, it’s advisable to consult with a healthcare professional before using green tea as medicine.

    Green Tea Extract Recipe

    Making your own green tea extract at home can be a simple process. Here’s a basic recipe to create a homemade green tea extract:


    • 1 cup of water
    • 2-3 green tea bags or 2 tablespoons of loose green tea leaves


    1. Boil the water in a saucepan or kettle and remove it from heat.
    2. Add the green tea bags or loose green tea leaves to the hot water.
    3. Allow the tea to steep for about 10 to 15 minutes. This will help extract the beneficial compounds from the tea.
    4. Remove the tea bags or strain the tea leaves from the liquid using a fine-mesh strainer or cheesecloth.
    5. Let the tea cool down completely.
    6. Transfer the cooled tea into a clean glass jar or bottle with an airtight lid.
    7. Store the jar or bottle in a cool, dark place away from direct sunlight. This will help preserve the extract’s potency.
    8. Leave the tea to infuse in the jar for about 24 to 48 hours. You can periodically shake the jar gently to enhance the extraction process.
    9. After the desired infusion time, strain the extract again to remove any remaining tea leaves or sediment.
    10. Pour the final green tea extract into a dark glass bottle or container with a tight-fitting lid for storage.
    11. Label the bottle with the date and contents for future reference.

    Your homemade green tea extract is now ready to use. Store it in a cool, dark place, such as a cupboard or refrigerator, to extend its shelf life. It’s recommended to use the extract within a few weeks to ensure its freshness and potency.

    You can incorporate the green tea extract into various recipes, such as smoothies, baked goods, or even homemade skincare products. Start with small amounts and adjust according to your taste preferences or recipe requirements.


    Green Tea Salve Recipe

    Making a green tea salve is a wonderful way to harness the beneficial properties of green tea for topical application. Here’s a basic recipe to create a homemade green tea salve:


    • 1 cup of carrier oil (such as olive oil, coconut oil, or almond oil)
    • 1/4 cup of dried green tea leaves or 3-4 green tea bags
    • 1 ounce of beeswax pellets or grated beeswax
    • Optional: a few drops of essential oil for fragrance (such as lavender or chamomile)


    1. In a heat-safe container or double boiler, combine the carrier oil and green tea leaves.
    2. Gently heat the mixture on low heat for 1 to 2 hours, stirring occasionally. This will infuse the oil with the beneficial compounds from the green tea. Alternatively, you can use a slow cooker on the low setting for 4 to 6 hours.
    3. After the infusion time, strain the oil using a fine-mesh strainer or cheesecloth to remove the tea leaves. Squeeze out as much oil as possible from the leaves.
    4. Return the infused oil to the heat-safe container or double boiler and add the beeswax pellets.
    5. Heat the mixture on low heat, stirring constantly, until the beeswax is completely melted and blended with the oil.
    6. Optional: If desired, add a few drops of essential oil to the mixture and stir well to incorporate the fragrance.
    7. Remove the mixture from heat and carefully pour it into clean, sterilized containers, such as small jars or tins.
    8. Allow the salve to cool completely and solidify before sealing the containers with lids or caps.

    Your homemade green tea salve is now ready to use. Store it in a cool, dry place away from direct sunlight. The salve should remain solid at room temperature and will melt upon contact with the warmth of your skin.

    Apply the green tea salve topically to soothe and moisturize the skin. It can be used for dry or irritated skin, minor cuts, scrapes, insect bites, or as a general moisturizer. Massage a small amount of the salve onto the affected area as needed.